The latest review of the material frontier (4th week of March 2018)

1. Advanced Materials Review: Nanomaterials for the regeneration of neural stem cells: There are more and more patients with neurological diseases and patients with neurological diseases. Because of the loss of neurons in damaged tissues, patients are rarely cured. This situation requires effective treatment and rehabilitation of injured and diseased tissues. Neural stem cells have versatility, self-renewal ability and multi-directional differentiation potential. This provides an effective solution for the treatment of neurological diseases. However, current transplantation protocols for neural stem cells are still challenging, including tracking their longevity, monitoring their interaction and reactivity with the tissue environment, and further evaluating their therapeutic effects. As an innovative material, nanomaterials can enhance the functional effects of neural stem cell repair agents, and their special physicochemical properties can provide an unprecedented solution to treat this disease. Great efforts have been made to introduce clinical research into neuronal cells using the advantages of nanomaterials. Recently, Chen Bingdi, Zhu Rongrong and Cheng Liming (Communication) of Tongji University summarized the problems faced by the combination of nanomaterials and neural stem cells in the treatment of neurological diseases and their solutions. The article summarizes the application potential of nanomaterials in neurological diseases and its therapeutic mechanism in the recovery of diseased tissues. This provides a new treatment for the lifespan of neural stem cells and the recovery of diseased tissues. 1_副本-4.jpg Figure 1 The main problem of cell therapy for central nervous system diseases 2. Corrosion Science Review: The effect of surface mechanical grinding treatment on the oxidation of 316L stainless steel shows that at high temperature, surface mechanical grinding has excellent effects on the oxidation resistance of 316L stainless steel. From 700 ° C to 750 ° C, after the surface mechanical grinding treatment, the oxidation kinetics of the sample is related to the preferential growth of chromium oxide. This is mainly because the surface of 316L stainless steel is mechanically ground to transform the main oxide phase, inhibiting the growth of hematite and promoting the formation of chromium oxide. Recently, B. Panicaud (communication author) and others at Troyes University of Engineering and Technology summarized the effects of mechanical surface grinding on 316L stainless steel at high temperatures. The article compares the composition, morphology and oxidation mechanism of different oxide layers, and the oxidation mechanism of untreated samples. It can be seen from the analysis that the surface mechanical grinding treatment has a good effect on the oxidation resistance of 316L stainless steel. Mechanical treatment of refined grain size can explain the experimental results of post-treatment oxidation resistance. 2_副本-5.jpg Figure 2 EBSD image of 316L stainless steel cross section 3, Nature Reviews Materials Overview: The cost and resource analysis of sodium ion batteries can be used to replace lithium-ion batteries because of the lower cost of sodium ion electronics. But the cost advantage of sodium-ion batteries is still controversial. Therefore, this paper uses the battery performance and composition model to discuss the cost of sodium ion batteries and lithium batteries, that is, sodium in the whole battery replaces the lithium anode current collector in lithium ion batteries. This paper compares the production costs of lithium and sodium batteries and finds that there is a potential supply risk for the positive electrode materials of lithium batteries, as supply problems may lead to increased costs. At the same time, the supply of lithium and cobalt resources is at risk. This paper provides a broad and interdisciplinary perspective on sodium ion batteries and future directions. Recently, Daniel Buchholz and Stefano Passerini (communication news) from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and others found that sodium replacement in lithium in the battery does not directly reduce the cost of the battery. However, the shortage of lithium resources and the price have been greatly improved. Relatively speaking, sodium resources are abundant and prices are low. Therefore, for the negative electrode material, the sodium ion battery converts the copper current collector into an aluminum current collector, which ultimately lowers the price of the battery. For the positive electrode material, the capacity has the potential for further improvement. Therefore, sodium ion batteries are one of the effective ways to solve energy problems. 3_副本-5.jpg Figure 3 Cost comparison model between sodium and lithium batteries 4. Chemical Society Reviews Overview: The application of nanocellulose in advanced electrochemical energy storage Nanocellulose is a potential nanomaterial due to its unique structure. . This paper briefly describes the structural characteristics of cellulose nanofibers. The specific structure and surface chemistry of nanocellulose prepared by a series of methods are emphasized, and its application in super-electric, lithium-ion, lithium-sulfur batteries and sodium ion batteries. After being integrated with other materials, the nanofiber material acts as a mixed matrix and forms a carbon material after thermal cracking, which can activate and increase functional groups, impurity atom doping and other active substances to be hybridized. Recently, Fan Zhuangjun (corresponding author) of Harbin Engineering University and others discussed the special structure and sustainable performance of nanocellulose in recent years, and the development of nanocellulose in the field of electrochemical energy. The synthesis, structural design, functional group design of cellulose structure and its application in advanced energy systems are summarized. 4_副本-5.jpg Figure 4. Application of nanocellulose synthesis, structure and function design in the field of energy 5. Chemical Society Reviews Overview: Biomedical applications of liquid metals Currently, liquid metals are widely used in many fields, such as electronics, engineering and energy. field. The physical and chemical properties of materials have been widely understood over the past decade, such as low viscosity, good flow, high electronic conductivity, and biocompatibility. Among them, gallium and gallium-based low melting point alloys have gained wide attention in the biological field. This article describes the unique properties of liquid metals and discusses their challenges in clinical applications. Recently, Gu Zhen from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Gu Zhen of North Carolina State University, and Yang Min (Communication) of Jiangsu Institute of Atomic Medicine summarized and highlighted the fluidity and deformability of liquid metal combinations. Biocompatibility, these properties make them have a good application prospect in biomedicine. At the same time, liquid metal can be used to make software robots and deformable materials for robots because of its good deformability. However, in microvessels, the preparation of such a soft robot becomes difficult. According to the latest liquid metal research results, it has high viscosity, self-exciting behavior, long-lasting power, and is a potential material for the preparation of vascular robots due to their unique properties and good fluidity and deformation properties. 5_副本-3.jpg Figure 5. Application of liquid metal and its gallium-based liquid metal in biomedical applications. 6. Chemical Society Reviews Overview: Photochemical and photophysical structures: Photochemical and photophysical studies based on MOF-based sensing functions. MOF has high specific surface area and structural tunneling properties. The development of sensors is particularly important. Among them, the light-harvesting ability and photocatalytic performance of MOF can enhance the sensing property of materials. In addition, the photophysical properties of MOF can improve the effectiveness and selectivity of the sensor. Therefore, this paper focuses on the latest research progress of sensors. Recently, Natalia B. Shustova (corresponding author) of the University of South Carolina and others summarized the potential of MOF on new sensors. At present, the photophysical and photochemical potential of MOF accelerates the capture of light, the conversion of energy, and the study of photocatalysis, thus revealing the advantages of this type of sensor. Natural light conversion models can be used to integrate photophysical processes, and a single MOF-based material can create a sensing platform. But integrating all the discussed performance into one material and making a sensing device is still an endless challenge. 6_副本.jpg Figure 6. Schematic diagram of natural light action, a schematic diagram of the next generation of MOF-based sensing devices that can be used to improve efficiency. 7. Chemical Reviews Overview: Recent advances in two-dimensional nanomaterials in electrocatalysis over the past few decades, advanced catalytic materials The impact of design and development on energy conversion efficiency has been extensively studied. With the discovery of graphene and the rise of two-dimensional nanomaterials, many catalytic materials with unique physical structure, chemical properties and electrical properties have emerged. Therefore, this paper summarizes the catalytic process of two-dimensional catalysts, including: water cycle, carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle, and its multi-functional applications. This paper focuses on the synthesis strategies of different two-dimensional nanomaterials and their effects on the properties of the materials themselves. The article also presents the opportunities and challenges of two-dimensional nanomaterials in the field of catalysis. Recently, Qiao Shizhen and Zheng Yao (communication news) of the University of Adelaide highlighted the fuel cell and (photovoltaic) electrocatalytic water cracking, the next generation of power and fuel production processes. Due to the commercialization of these technologies, rapid reaction and high yields require a range of high performance catalysts. Therefore, a deeper understanding of basic theory, concepts and catalysis is needed. This is important for molecular design where these catalysts are urgently needed. Looking ahead, the combination of theoretical adjustments and experimental electrochemical test methods can facilitate advanced spectral characterization and aid in the design and production of new catalysts. 7_副本-1.jpg Figure 7 Characteristics and application of two-dimensional nanomaterials 8. Chemical Reviews Overview: Study of non-fullerene receptor molecules in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells. The mixing of electron donors and electron acceptors in bulk heterojunctions is solution treatment. An important component of organic photovoltaic devices. In the past 10 years, P-type conjugated polymers and N-type fullerene derivatives have been the most widely used electron donors and electron acceptors. However, the design of new polymer donors determines the properties of the material, and fullerene derivatives are often used as electron acceptors for organic solar cells. Recently, non-fullerene acceptor materials, especially small molecules and oligomers, have been well used in the replacement of fullerene materials. These new receptors are synthetically diverse, low cost, good chemical, thermodynamic and optical stability relative to fullerene materials. In the last five years, more than 100 non-fullerene receptors have been synthesized, resulting in an increase in the efficiency of organic solar cells from less than 2% in 2012 to more than 13% in 2017. This paper summarizes this process, analyzes its design ideas, reveals the relationship between structure and performance, raises the challenges faced in this field, and looks forward to the prospects of organic solar cells. Recently, Yan He (corresponding author) of Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and others focused on the application of non-fullerene receptors in organic solar cells. A variety of synthetic methods provide molecular design strategies, provide a low-cost synthetic route, and obtain more than 100 non-fullerene materials. This material combines with other polymers or molecular donors to form a variety of organic solar cells, including binary, ternary, single heterojunction and multi-heterojunction cells. This not only improves conversion efficiency but also increases its chemical, thermodynamic and optical stability. 8_副本.jpg Figure 8 Application of non-fullerene receptor molecules 9. Accounts of Chemical Research Overview: Research progress on small molecules in lead halide perovskite solar cells as hole transport materials Currently, more than 100 new organic semiconductor molecules have been Synthetic, in perovskite solar cells and as a hole transport material (HTMS). However, up to now, spiro-OMeTAD is still the best choice for perovskite batteries. However, the spiro-OMeTAD material has problems of instability and high cost of use. The new synthetic route for HTMs should be a chemical synthesis method with fewer synthetic steps, the highest self-use molecular orbitals and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals, while expanding commercial use. Current work focuses on the performance of organic semiconductors with excellent chemical structures such as aromatic amines, carbazoles and thiophenes. Recently, Anton Vidal-Ferran and Emilio Palomares (Communications) of the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology discussed the urgent need for the design and synthesis of HTMs in perovskite solar cells. Although the dominant material for HTMs is spiro-OMeTAD, several molecules are summarized in this paper, which have higher stability than spiro-OMeTAD. The article also summarizes the role of perovskite materials and HTM interface. When the performance of spiro-OMeTAD in solar cells is different from that of HTMs, HOMO has a problem of difference in energy levels. At the same time, the study of carrier loss is very important. Fortunately, the increase in the number of functional groups contributes to the rapid growth of new materials. In the future research of perovskite cells, the substitution of spiro-OMeTAD is a meaningful study. 9_副本.jpg Figure 9 Schematic diagram of the layered structure of the perovskite battery

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